The OWASP Top 10 is a compilation of the most widespread and critical vulnerabilities in web applications. Based on data collected from a wide variety of real-world applications, the OWASP Top 10 Vulnerabilities 2021 is revised every three to four years to account for developments in the threat landscape. Developers, security experts, and app owners can all benefit from the OWASP Top 10 list for identifying and fixing the most pressing security issues. Data breaches, financial losses, and a company’s reputation are just some of the issues that can result from the OWASP Top 10 vulnerabilities.
An injection flaw occurs when malicious information is included in a command or query and sent to the interpreter. An adversary may then be able to inject malicious code into the app, bypass authentication, or issue commands without authorization. Injection attacks are widespread and can compromise a variety of components, including databases, OSs, web servers, and more. The majority of popular web applications, including shopping carts, social networks, and CMSs, have injection flaws. OWASP top 10 can help developers to prevent injection attacks by using input validation, parameterized queries, and prepared statements to clean up user input before it is used in a query or command.
Broken session management and authentication
Insecure authentication and session management occur when the corresponding mechanisms aren’t properly implemented. Passwords, keys, and session tokens are all vulnerable to theft in this way. This could potentially allow unauthorized users to access restricted resources. Strong password policies, password encryption, and good session management are all ways for developers to prevent security flaws like these. Rather than using the user’s input, session IDs should be generated randomly each time a user logs in or out.
“Cross-Site Scripting” (XSS)
When an application displays potentially malicious data on a web page without first validating or escaping it, this is known as a cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability. These vulnerabilities allow attackers to steal information or conduct other attacks by executing malicious scripts in the victim’s browser. Personal information, login credentials, and credit card numbers are all vulnerable to theft via XSS attacks. Additionally, they can be used to launch phishing attacks, disseminate malware, and hijack user sessions. Developers should employ input validation and output encoding to prevent XSS attacks by checking and cleaning user input and encoding any output. Web application firewalls can also be used to detect and prevent XSS attacks.
The Problem with Access Control
When an application fails to properly enforce access controls, it leaves itself vulnerable to attacks. These attacks can gain unauthorized access to private data or modify system settings. APIs and services can be vulnerable if they have insufficient access control, don’t properly check permissions, or have unsafe direct object references. To avoid access control vulnerabilities, developers should use proper authorization checks, implement secure direct object references, and ensure that APIs and services are properly secured. Only authorized users should have access to private data, and access controls should be based on roles and permissions.
Incorrect security settings
An insecure application configuration leaves the system vulnerable to intrusion. A security misconfiguration flaw describes this situation. These security flaws can be caused by a wide variety of factors, including vulnerable default settings, outdated software, or improper file appsealing permissions. To prevent security misconfiguration vulnerabilities, developers should adhere to security best practices and guidelines, such as configuring security settings for all components of the system, maintaining software updates, and using secure file permissions.
Unsafe Cryptographic Data Storage
Application vulnerabilities related to insecure cryptographic storage occur when sensitive data, such as passwords or credit card numbers, are stored in an insecure manner. Intruders may be able to access restricted areas, take control of user accounts, or steal from the system. Developers should employ robust encryption algorithms, secure methods of storing keys, and appropriate practices for storing passwords to prevent cryptographic storage from being compromised. Salting and hashing passwords with a secure hashing algorithm (like bcrypt or script) is recommended.
Insufficient recording and monitoring
When an application fails to properly log or monitor security events, this creates a vulnerability known as insufficient logging and monitoring. This makes it more difficult to detect attacks and counter them. These voids may result from insufficient logging or monitoring tools or from inadequate logging or monitoring policies. To avoid security flaws brought on by insufficient logging and monitoring, developers should implement the appropriate logging and monitoring capabilities and policies.
This vulnerability occurs when an application uses insecure protocols or channels to talk to users or other systems. This includes logging all security events, such as failed login attempts and system changes, and regularly reviewing log data to find and deal with security incidents. This can open the door for hackers to intercept data in transit or tamper with it. To protect data in transit, developers should employ HTTPS or SSH and robust encryption algorithms. All forms of communication between individuals must be secure and checked.
Incorrect Validation of Input
Inadequately validating user input is a common source of security holes in applications. This opens the door for bad actors to insert malicious code or perform other unwanted actions. These flaws can arise from improper handling of input data, such as failing to check for valid input types or failing to properly escape special characters. To prevent security issues brought on by improper input validation, developers should employ methods like regular expression validation and input filtering. SQL injection and similar attacks can be prevented with the help of prepared statements and parameterized queries.
Insecure applications often have broken dependencies because they rely on outdated or insecure third-party libraries or components. This can make it simpler for hackers to exploit vulnerabilities in these libraries or components and launch attacks. To protect their code from security holes caused by outdated or missing dependencies, developers should maintain a comprehensive inventory of all external libraries and components used. They should also update their dependencies as necessary and check for security flaws regularly.
Web application developers and security professionals can benefit from the OWASP Top 10 vulnerabilities for 2021. Developers can aid in the safety and security of their apps by becoming aware of these vulnerabilities and implementing appropriate security measures.